Plants conservation in Myanmar

There are totally 50 threatened plant species, of which 18 Critically endangered, 16 Endangered and 16 Vulnerable based on the classification from IUCN RedList. The following table indicates that Dipterocarpaceae is the most threatened plant family with 16 Critically endangered species, 7 Endangered species and 2 Vulnerable species out of 19 threatened plant families. The main threats for plant species were identified as overexploitation by legal and illegal logging, and habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation by commercial plantations and inappropriate land uses.

Myanma Timber Enterprise (MTE) has extracted Dipterocarpus spp, Shorea spp and Hopea spp. The total amount of hard wood extraction by MTE has increased 5-6% annually between 1996 and 2006 (Central Statistical Organization 2008). Domestic consumption of Dipterocarp species has also significantly increased, particularly, in places where large infrastructure has been developed.

Large-scale use of Shorea assamica can be observed in Kachin State and northern Sagaing Region. The species is being overexploited for large boat making for transportation along the northern part of the Chindwin River. As the wood grain of this species is interlocked, it provides more strength than Teak Tectona grandis to resist underwater obstacles and rocks. Since the boats made of this species only last a maximum of two years, the replacement rate is massive and this has lead to the species becoming increasingly rare in all accessible areas of Kachin State. Other noticeable overexploited species are Aquilaria malaccensis an aromatic non-timber forest product and Taiwania cryptomerioides a species known locally as coffin wood, which is sold in China.

In Taninthayi Region and Kachin State where extensive commercial plantation concessions for palm oil and tapioca have been established, plant species from the following families – Caesalpiniaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Magnoliaceae, Myristicaceae, Myrtaceae, Taxodiaceae, Theaceae, Thymelaeaceae have been highly threatened by habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation. Remaining forested landscapes in Kachin State, Taninthayi Region, Chin State, Rakhine State and northern Sagaing Region should be prioritized for conservation of threatened plant species.

While new plant species have been discovered, their conservation status are still in question (e.g. Kress & Thet Htun 2003; Peters et al. 2007). In particular, the conservation status of Myanmar orchids is virtually unknown (Saw Lwin pers comm). In the marine realm the sea grass species Halophila beccarii is considered the most vulnerable among 11 sea grass species, known to occur along the Myanmar coast (Soe-Htun et al. 2008; Novak et al. 2009).

Threatened plant species in Myanmar

Scientific Name Common name Status
Anisoptera curtisii Kaungmu CR
Anisoptera scaphula Taung-sagaing CR
Bombax insigne Didu/ Taung-letpan CR
Dipterocarpus baudii Kanyin CR
Dipterocarpus dyeri Ka-nyin CR
Dipterocarpus grandiflorus Kanyin/ Kanyin-byan CR
Dipterocarpus kerrii Kanyin-byan CR
Dipterocarpus retusus Kanyin-ni CR
Dipterocarpus tuberculatus CR
Dipterocarpus turbinatus Kanyin-ni CR
Hopea apiculata No common name CR
Hopea helferi Thingan-net CR
Hopea sangal Thingan-magalay CR
Parashorea stellata Thingadu CR
Shorea assamica Kyilan CR
Shorea farinosa Thingan-phyu CR
Sonneratia griffithii Laba CR
Vatica lanceaefolia Pan-thitya CR
Afzelia xylocarpa Pyin-padauk EN
Anisoptera costata Kaban-bok EN
Cleidiocarpon laurinum No common name EN
Cynometra ramiflora Myinga EN
Dalbergia oliveri Tamalan EN
Diospyros crumentata Taung-bok EN
Dipterocarpus alatus Kanyin-phyu EN
Dipterocarpus costatus Kanyin-ywet-thay EN
Heritiera fomes Kanazo EN
Heritiera littoralis Pinle-Kanazo EN
Picea farreri No common name EN
Shorea gratissima U-ban-kaya EN
Shorea henryana Kaban-than-gyin EN
Shorea roxburghii Kaban-ywet-thay EN
Syzygium zeylanicum Tha-bye-bauk EN
Vatica cinerea No common name EN
Acacia ferruginea Sha-byu VU
Aquilaria malaccensis Thit-hmwe VU
Cephalotaxus mannii No common name VU
Cycas pectinata Mondaing madai VU
Cycas siamensis Mondaing VU
Dalbergia fusca Yinsat VU
Halophila beccarii No common name VU
Hopea griffithii No common name VU
Hopea odorata Thangan VU
Intsia bijuga Saga-lun VU
Magnolia nitida No common name VU
Magnolia rostrata No common name VU
Myristica malabarica Taw-zadeik-po VU
Pterocarpus indicus Pan-padauk VU
Schima wallichii Laukya VU
Taiwania cryptomerioides Tayok-khaung-pin VU
Aegialitis rotundifolia Pinle-sa
Brownlowia tersa No common name
Ceriops decandra Ma-da-ma
Ceriops tagal Ma-da-ma
Excoecaria agallocha Kayaw/ Thayaw
Gnetum oblongum No common name
Blyxa quadricostata No common name DD
Butea monosperma Pauk DD
Excoecaria indica No common name DD
Hopea oblongifolia Tanyin-byan DD
Hydnocarpus kurzii Kalaw DD
Leucomeris decora Phet-pya DD
Magnolia griffithii No common name DD
Quercus rex Dowaing DD
Taxus wallichiana Kyauk-htinyu DD
By | 2017-05-19T09:58:13+00:00 January 12th, 2014|Wildlife, Plants|0 Comments

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